- Refereeing regulations for International Judo Federation (IJF) competitions
- Rules violations and penalties
Rules violations and penalties
There are two penalty categories: "Shido" for minor violations, and "Hansoku-make" for serious violations. A contestant who draws 4 consecutive "Shido" will incur a "Hansoku-make". The number of "Shido" and the corresponding points which are awarded to the opponent are as follows.
● 2nd Shido → Yuko
● 3rd Shido → Waza-ari
● 4th Shido → Hansoku-make → Ippon
■ Penalty criteria
Because the "Koka" was abolished, a "1st Shido" no longer results in a point for the opponent. However, a "2nd Shido" will confer a "Yuko" on the opponent. Even so, the "1st Shido" is still called, and is still indicated on the scoreboard.
IJF prohibited acts and penalties
- For "Shido" (minor violation group)
- To intentionally avoid engagement with opponent.
- To adopt an excessively defensive posture (generally, for more than 5 seconds).
- To feign an intent to attack, but clearly lacking an intent to execute it (false attack).
- To grasp the opponent's sleeve for defensive purposes (generally, for more than 5 seconds), or to twist the sleeve.
- Standing with fingers mutually entwined (for 5 seconds or longer).
- Intentionally disarranging one's own uniform, and retying the belt or pant's drawstring without the referee's permission.
- Pulling the opponent into a Ne-waza from a condition in which a transition to a Ne-waza is not possible.
- Inserting the fingers into the opponent's sleeve or leg openings.
- Gripping the opponent in a manner other than the "normal Kumi-kata" without attacking (generally, for more than 5 seconds).
- Failing to attack before or after taking the Kumi-kata stance.
- Grasping the opponent's sleeve between the thumb and fingers ("pistol grip").
- Folding back and grasping the opponent's sleeve ("pocket grip").
- Grasping the opponent's foot (leg) or pant's leg without simultaneously attempting a Nage-waza.
- Wrapping the belt ends or uniform hem around any part of the opponent's body.
- Biting the hem of the uniform (one's own uniform or the opponent's uniform).
- Placing a hand, arm, foot or leg directly on the opponent's face.
- Hooking the foot (or leg) in the opponent's belt or collar.
- Strangling the opponent with the tunic hem, belt, or directly with the hands.
- Moving outside the contest area, or intentionally pushing the opponent outside the contest area.
- Applying a leg scissors lock to the opponent's trunk, neck, or head (crossing and extending the legs).
- Attempting to break the opponent's grasp by kicking the opponent's hand (or arm) with the knee or foot. Or, kicking the opponent's foot (or leg) without applying any technique.
- Bending the opponent's fingers back in order to break his grasp.
- Grasping the opponent's pants during an offensive or defensive maneuver executed from a standing posture (doing so will incur a "Mate" and a "Shido").
The "pants grasp" is allowed if simultaneously executing an Ouchi-gari, or when applying a Morote-gari, Kuchiki-taoshi, or Sukui-nage while holding the opponent's leg.
- Hansoku-make (defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties)
- Applying a Kawazu-gake.
- Applying a Kansetsu-waza anywhere other than to the elbow joint.
- Lifting a supine opponent off the floor, then throwing him back to the floor.
- Reaping the opponent's support leg from the inner side when the opponent has applied a Harai-goshi (hip sweep), etc.
- Failing to follow the referee's instructions.
- Uttering meaningless cries, or using speech or behavior which is disrespectful to the opponent and the referee.
- Committing an action that poses an injury risk to the opponent, or an action that violates the spirit of Judo.
- Falling directly to the floor while applying or attempting to apply a technique such as the Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame.
- Throwing the opponent to the floor headfirst when executing an Uchi-mata, Harai-goshi Waza, etc. Or, falling directly backwards while executing a Kata-guruma from either a standing or kneeling posture.
- Intentionally falling backwards with the opponent clinging to one's back.
- Wearing metal objects or other hard objects which could pose a hazard to the opponent.