Rules violations and penalties

Rules violations and penalties

There are two penalty categories: "Shido" for minor violations, and "Hansoku-make" for serious violations. A contestant who draws 4 consecutive "Shido" will incur a "Hansoku-make". The number of "Shido" and the corresponding points which are awarded to the opponent are as follows.
● 2nd Shido → Yuko
● 3rd Shido → Waza-ari
● 4th Shido → Hansoku-make → Ippon

■ Penalty criteria
Because the "Koka" was abolished, a "1st Shido" no longer results in a point for the opponent. However, a "2nd Shido" will confer a "Yuko" on the opponent. Even so, the "1st Shido" is still called, and is still indicated on the scoreboard.

IJF prohibited acts and penalties


For "Shido" (minor violation group)
  1. To intentionally avoid engagement with opponent.
  2. To adopt an excessively defensive posture (generally, for more than 5 seconds).
  3. To feign an intent to attack, but clearly lacking an intent to execute it (false attack).
  4. To grasp the opponent's sleeve for defensive purposes (generally, for more than 5 seconds), or to twist the sleeve.
  5. Standing with fingers mutually entwined (for 5 seconds or longer).
  6. Intentionally disarranging one's own uniform, and retying the belt or pant's drawstring without the referee's permission.
  7. Pulling the opponent into a Ne-waza from a condition in which a transition to a Ne-waza is not possible.
  8. Inserting the fingers into the opponent's sleeve or leg openings.
  9. Gripping the opponent in a manner other than the "normal Kumi-kata" without attacking (generally, for more than 5 seconds).
  10. Failing to attack before or after taking the Kumi-kata stance.
  11. Grasping the opponent's sleeve between the thumb and fingers ("pistol grip").
  12. Folding back and grasping the opponent's sleeve ("pocket grip").
  13. Grasping the opponent's foot (leg) or pant's leg without simultaneously attempting a Nage-waza.
  14. Wrapping the belt ends or uniform hem around any part of the opponent's body.
  15. Biting the hem of the uniform (one's own uniform or the opponent's uniform).
  16. Placing a hand, arm, foot or leg directly on the opponent's face.
  17. Hooking the foot (or leg) in the opponent's belt or collar.
  18. Strangling the opponent with the tunic hem, belt, or directly with the hands.
  19. Moving outside the contest area, or intentionally pushing the opponent outside the contest area.
  20. Applying a leg scissors lock to the opponent's trunk, neck, or head (crossing and extending the legs).
  21. Attempting to break the opponent's grasp by kicking the opponent's hand (or arm) with the knee or foot. Or, kicking the opponent's foot (or leg) without applying any technique.
  22. Bending the opponent's fingers back in order to break his grasp.
  23. Grasping the opponent's pants during an offensive or defensive maneuver executed from a standing posture (doing so will incur a "Mate" and a "Shido").

The "pants grasp" is allowed if simultaneously executing an Ouchi-gari, or when applying a Morote-gari, Kuchiki-taoshi, or Sukui-nage while holding the opponent's leg.


Hansoku-make (defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties)
  1. Applying a Kawazu-gake.
  2. Applying a Kansetsu-waza anywhere other than to the elbow joint.
  3. Lifting a supine opponent off the floor, then throwing him back to the floor.
  4. Reaping the opponent's support leg from the inner side when the opponent has applied a Harai-goshi (hip sweep), etc.
  5. Failing to follow the referee's instructions.
  6. Uttering meaningless cries, or using speech or behavior which is disrespectful to the opponent and the referee.
  7. Committing an action that poses an injury risk to the opponent, or an action that violates the spirit of Judo.
  8. Falling directly to the floor while applying or attempting to apply a technique such as the Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame.
  9. Throwing the opponent to the floor headfirst when executing an Uchi-mata, Harai-goshi Waza, etc. Or, falling directly backwards while executing a Kata-guruma from either a standing or kneeling posture.
  10. Intentionally falling backwards with the opponent clinging to one's back.
  11. Wearing metal objects or other hard objects which could pose a hazard to the opponent.