Rules violations

This section explains the criterion for rules violations related to Waza and other maneuvers.
* If both contestants commit a rules violation simultaneously, both are penalized.

Shido

A Shido is issued for minor violations.

Shido

Violations which draw a Shido
  1. Excessive passivity, and failure to attack (for approx. 30 secs.)
    * The first Shido for this violation is an "instructional Shido", and does not count as a penalty. If drawn a second time, however, it becomes a penalty.
  2. Failure to engage the opponent (for approx. 20 secs.), or, repeatedly engaging and disengaging.
  3. Feigning an intent to attack, but clearly lacking an intent to throw the opponent (false attack).
  4. Adopting an excessively defensive posture (for 6 secs. or longer).
  5. Grasping the same sleeve or lapel of the opponent for 6 seconds or longer.
  6. Grasping the opponent's belt or tunic hem, etc., for 6 seconds or longer.
  7. Reaching under the opponent's arm unnecessarily.
  8. Inserting fingers into the opponent's sleeve or leg opening to obtain a grasp. Twisting the opponent's sleeve opening when in a standing fighting stance. Holding the opponent's uniform in a twisting grasp.
  9. Standing with fingers mutually entwined for 6 seconds or longer.
  10. Intentionally disarranging the uniform, and retying the belt without the referee's permission.
  11. Grabbing the standing opponent's arm or leg in order to transition to defense or to a Ne-waza from either a standing or lying posture, except when the opponent is skillfully toppled.
  12. Wrapping the belt ends or the hem of the tunic around the opponent's arm.
  13. Biting the opponent's uniform, placing a hand, arm, foot, or leg directly on the opponent's face, or grasping the opponent's hair.
  14. Uttering meaningless cries.

Chui

A Chui is issued for somewhat more serious violations. Two Shido will also result in a "Chui", giving the opponent the equivalent of a "Yuko".

Chui

Violations which draw a Chui
  1. Executing a Shime-waza strangle on a part of the body other than the neck. Strangling the neck by using the obi ends or the tunic hem. Strangling the neck directly with the hands or legs (scissoring the neck).
  2. Hooking the foot (or leg) in the opponent's belt or collar during a Katame-waza.
  3. Bending the opponent's fingers backward to break his grip.
  4. Attempting to pull the opponent into a Ne-waza from a condition in which a transition to a Ne-waza is not possible (*).
  5. Using the knee or foot/leg to strike an opponent's hand in order to break his grasp.
  6. Moving out of the contest area when in a standing posture, except when such movement is caused by the opponent's Waza or maneuver.

(*) Transitioning to Ne-waza

Transitions to Ne-waza are permitted at the following times:
  1. When a contestant, after performing a fairly effective Nage-waza, moves without interruption into a Ne-waza and takes the offensive.
  2. When a contestant falls (or is about to fall) to the ground after attempting an unsuccessful Nage-waza, with the opponent then taking the offensive.
  3. When a contestant performs a fairly effective Shime-waza or Kansetsu-waza in the standing position, and then changes without interruption to a Ne-waza.
  4. When a contestant topples the opponent down into a Ne-waza by a skillful maneuver other than a Nage-waza.
  5. In any other case where one contestant falls down (or is about to fall), with the opponent using this opportunity to take the offensive with a Ne-waza.

Keikoku

A Keikoku is issued for serious violations. A "Chui" + "Shido", or a "Chui" + "Chui" will also result in a Keikoku, giving the opponent the equivalent of a "Waza-ari".

Keikoku

Violations which draw a Keikoku:
  1. Intentionally moving outside the contest area, or intentionally pushing the opponent outside the contest area.
  2. Reaping or sweeping the opponent's support leg from the inner side when the opponent has applied a Harai-goshi (hip sweep), etc.
  3. Executing the Kawazu-gake (one-leg entanglement drop) Waza.
  4. Applying a Kansetsu-waza to a joint other than the elbow.
  5. Executing a maneuver which could injure the neck joint or the spine.
  6. Lifting the supine opponent off the floor, or lifting him and then throwing him back onto the floor.
  7. Intentionally falling backward together with the opponent in a controlled fashion when the opponent has wrapped his arms around you from behind.
  8. Performing an abrupt posture sacrifice when executing an Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame (armpit lock), etc., from a standing posture.
  9. Executing a Waza outside the contest area.
  10. Failing to follow the referee's restraint or instruction.
  11. Using speech or behavior which is disrespectful to the opponent.
  12. Committing an action that poses an injury risk to the opponent, or an action that violates the spirit of Judo.

Hansoku-make

A "Hansoku-make" (defeat by grave infringement or accumulated lighter penalties) is issued for extremely serious violations. A "Keikoku" + another prohibited action will also result in a Hansoku-make, giving the opponent the equivalent of an "Ippon" win.

Hansoku-make

Violations which draw a Hansoku-make:
Bending the body forward in a low posture when executing an Uchi-mata, Hane-goshi, or Harai-goshi Waza, etc., and throwing the opponent to the floor headfirst.