Glossary of Judo terminology
Certain actions, etc., are prohibited in Judo contests. These include both behavior and Waza related items.
Contestants will draw a (Instruction / Light penalty) for the following actions: refusing to attack, adopting an excessively defensive posture, feigning an attack without actually intending to follow through, intentionally avoiding the Kumi-kata posture in order to prevent action, etc. Moreover, a contestant who executes a dangerous Waza which could injure the opponent may draw Keikoku (warning) or Hansoku-make (Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties).
A contest is temporarily stopped when a contestant commits a prohibited action. Both contestants then return to their start positions where they receive the infringement declaration. In some Ne waza (Ground techniques) situations, the contestants may return to positions other than their start positions.