Glossary of Judo terminology
Basic philosophy of junior age group regulations
Junior rules apply to primary school and junior high school students.
The All Japan Judo Federation defines the aim of junior rules as follows: "The basic goals of the junior rules are to teach the proper Kumi-kata and Waza techniques, to teach the Kodokan Judo fundamentals, to foster the capability and attitude to make Judo an intimate and lifelong asset, and to build up the base of Japan Judo."
Judo seeks to foster youth who can valiantly face larger and stronger opponents, to foster spirits that do not waver in the face of adversity, to foster an attitude that is not consumed solely with victory and defeat, to foster respect for the opponent, and to foster a fair and open attitude. Judo seeks to teach "strength, gentleness, and mental toughness", and with due consideration to all aspects of youth education, the junior rules specify prohibited items which will result in penalties.
These rules can be largely divided into two parts: "Fundamental knowledge" and "Attention to safety".
Prohibited items from the "fundamental knowledge" standpoint
A junior contestant will draw a "Shido"(Instruction / Light penalty) for intentionally moving outside the contest area, failing to properly engage the opponent, failing to attack with vigor. In some cases, the contestant may also draw a "Keikoku"(Warning) or a "Hansoku-make"(Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties).
Some items which incur a penalty under the junior rules are as follows:
(1) Failing to engage (grip) the opponent, and failing to attempt a Waza (for approximately 20 seconds). Or, engaging and disengaging from the opponent in a repeated manner.
(2) Adopting an excessively defensive posture while in a standing fighting posture (for 6 seconds or longer).
(3) Standing with fingers mutually entwined (for 6 seconds or longer).
(4) Uttering meaningless cries.
(5) Speech or behavior which is disrespectful to the opponent.
Item (5), in particular, could draw a "Keikoku"(Warning) or a "Hansoku-make"(Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties).
Prohibited items from the IJF rules "Attention to safety" standpoint
Junior safety rules are necessary because many junior competitions have no weight divisions, being divided solely by school year, often resulting in considerable differences between the contestants' physical statures and strength. Moreover, because their bodies are not yet fully developed, special measures must be taken to prevent injuries.
For details, see the following sections: "Prohibitions regarding junior age groups" (Tachi shobu, Nage waza), and "Prohibitions regarding junior age groups" (Kansetsu waza, Shime waza, Katame-waza).