Glossary of Judo terminology

Prohibitions regarding junior age groups (Kansetsu waza, Shime waza, Katame-waza)

Prohibitions regarding junior age groups (Kansetsu waza, Shime waza, Katame-waza)

In addition to the general prohibitions, the junior rules include the following prohibitions related to safety.

"Chui" (Light penalty) or higher penalty for using a Kansetsu waza (Joint locks), a Shime waza (Strangling techniques), or a Sankaku-jime (Triangular strangle).

Because their bodies are not yet fully formed, junior contestants are particularly vulnerable to Waza which are applied to the joints. Certain Shime waza (Strangling techniques), and the Sankaku-jime (Triangular strangle) in particular, are therefore prohibited due to the risk of neck injury. Primary school students are prohibited from using any of the Kansetsu waza (Joint locks) and Shime waza (Strangling techniques).

Prohibited Waza/actions and the penalties for their use

● Kani-basami (Scissors throw) ... Hansoku-make (Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties)
This Waza throws the opponent down in a backward posture, and is also forbidden in general competitions. Using this Waza will result in an immediate Hansoku-make (Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties).
● Excessive Makikomi-waza (Wraparound techniques) ... "Chui" (Light penalty) or higher penalty.
A penalty is imposed if the contestant using the Makikomi-waza (Wraparound techniques) applies his body weight in an excessive manner to the opponent being thrown, or if the thrower lands with excessive force on the opponent as if to crush him / her. Such actions present serious safety hazards, and a contestant who engages in them will draw a "Chui" (Light penalty) or higher penalty.
Osoto-gari (Large outer reap) or Harai-goshi (Hip sweep) executed with an arm around the opponent's neck ... "Chui" (Light penalty) or higher penalty.
When toppling an opponent with a large leg sweep as in the Osoto-gari (Large outer reap) or Harai-goshi (Hip sweep) Waza, the thrower topples the opponent from a high position with considerable force. Wrapping an arm around the opponent's neck increases that force even more, posing a safety hazard that could cause serious damage. Performing this action will draw a "Chui" (Light penalty) or higher penalty.
Morote-gari (Two-hands reap) ... "Chui" (Light penalty) or higher penalty.
In this Waza, Tori grasps both the opponent's arms or torso with both hands and applies his own body weight to Uke as he topples him. This Waza is therefore prohibited in junior competitions due to safety concerns, given that most of these competitions use an "open weight division" format.

Actions which could damage the neck joint and spine when performing a Katame waza (Grappling techniques), etc ... "Shido" (Instruction / Light penalty) or higher.

Even in general competitions, any action which could damage the neck joint or spine will draw a "Keikoku" (Warning) or "Hansoku-make" (Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties), due to the risk of serious injury. This is particularly true in junior competitions, and referee is quick to call a "Mate" (Wait) or "Shido" (Instruction / Light penalty) for such actions.